The Great Generalization

Organizational Adaptation Strategies as Entrepreneurship in Higher Music Education


  • Jacob Hertzog University of Arkansas


organizational adaptation, higher music education, organizational adaptation strategy, organizational entrepreneurship, digital revolution, music industry, music unit, music leader, great generalization, generalization, decentralization, formalization, specialization, inaction, music, music education


This study sought to measure how higher music education has evolved in response to the music industry’s digital revolution. I utilized a framework of organizational adaptation theory to synthesize five distinct organizational adaptation strategies: decentralization, generalization, specialization, formalization, and inaction. Music leaders were surveyed (n = 100) to assess adaptations across ten common domains in higher education. Higher music education was found to have undergone a great generalization through the expansion of activities in nearly every domain. Consistent with elements of organizational adaptation theory, and like individual musicians, higher music education has been entrepreneurial in response to the digital revolution.

Author Biography

Jacob Hertzog, University of Arkansas

Jake Hertzog is a critically acclaimed guitarist, composer and educator whose career to-date has spanned ten albums as bandleader across jazz, rock and classical new music styles. He has toured throughout the U.S., Europe, Latin America, the Middle East and India and performed and recorded with a diverse cadre of artists including Randy Brecker, Ivan Neville, Mike Clarke, Blondie Chaplin, Anton Fig, Corey Glover, Barry Altschul, Dave Leibman, Ingrid Jensen and many others.

Hertzog is a grand prize winner of the Montreux Jazz Guitar Competition, holds a performance degree from Berklee College of Music and a master's degree from The Manhattan School of Music in New York. In additional to his musical work, Hertzog also holds a Ph.D. in higher education. His research focuses on how higher music education is adapting to the digital music industry. Other research includes data use in the music industry, music ecosystems, and entrepreneurial pedagogy. His classical work also includes a solo guitar album, "Well Lit Shadow" (2016), a classical suite for solo electric guitar celebrating themes and images in particle physics.

Black and white image of studio microphone foregrouding sound mixing equipment.




How to Cite

Hertzog, J. (2022). The Great Generalization: Organizational Adaptation Strategies as Entrepreneurship in Higher Music Education. Artivate: A Journal of Entrepreneurship in the Arts, 11(1). Retrieved from