The Rise of Hybrid Practice

Creative Institutional Design as Arts Entrepreneurship


  • Amy Whitaker New York University



hybrid practice, institutional entrepreneurship, arts entrepreneurship, non-profit, B corporation, public benefit corporation


This paper redefines hybrid practice as a form of creative institutional design rooted in the problems of dealing with multiple forms of value, an area in which the arts offer pioneering cases for general theory-building around external amalgamation of existing legal forms, internal design within hybrid legal forms, and field-building across communities and economic systems. Informed by, but distinct from, implicitly neoliberal and social-impact literatures on institutional entrepreneurship, hybridity, and agency, this framework extends theories of effectuation to argue for a view of arts entrepreneurship as a laboratory for complex problem-solving both within and well beyond the arts.

Author Biography

Amy Whitaker, New York University

Dr. Amy Whitaker is an Associate Professor of Visual Arts Administration at NYU. She holds an MBA (Yale), an MFA in painting (the Slade), a PhD in political economy, and undergraduate degrees in studio art and political science. Since 2003, she has taught business to artists and art to businesspeople. Her work on fractional equity in art using blockchain received the European Academy of Management's Edith Penrose Award for pioneering research. She is the author of numerous journal articles and four books: Economics of Visual Art (Cambridge), Art Thinking (Harper), Museum Legs (Hol), and The Story of NFTs (with Abrams, Rizzoli). 

Driving to El Chalten, Argentinian Patagonia




How to Cite

Whitaker, A. (2023). The Rise of Hybrid Practice: Creative Institutional Design as Arts Entrepreneurship. Artivate: A Journal of Entrepreneurship in the Arts, 11(3).